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Perceptions about Impact of Daylight Saving Time on Sleeping and Electricity Consumption in Pakistan During 2009 

 

 

MR. MUHAMMAD JAVED SHEIKH

Lecturer

Department of Rural Sociology

Faculty of Agricultural Social Sciences

Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam.

Cell # +92 306 3076371

Email: mjs_tj@yahoo.com

  

DR. SAIMA SHAIKH

Assistant Professor

Department of Sociology

University of Sindh, Jamshoro

 

DR. AIJAZ ALI KHOOHARO

Assistant Professor

Department of Statistics

Faculty of Agricultural Social Sciences

Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam

 

MR. GHULAM MUJTABA KHUSHK

Assistant Professor

Department of Rural Sociology

Faculty of Agricultural Social Sciences

Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam.

 

  

Perceptions about Impact of Daylight Saving Time on Sleeping and Electricity Consumption in Pakistan During 2009 

 

 

M. J. Sheikh*, S. Sheikh**, A. A. Khooharo*, G. M. Khushk* 

 

ABSTRACT

            This study has attempted to collect perceptions of major categories viz. students, unemployed and employed persons about the impact of Daylight Saving Time (DST) on sleeping and electricity. DST is widely practiced but is supposed to be controversial even in Europe and America. DST is mostly being followed by government employees and students and less practiced in the major part of private sector. A general apprehension is drifted that DST increased somehow electricity consumption and a cause of night time sleep deprivation. Simultaneously, the research guides that the people of Pakistan are saving day time not energy.  Therefore, the proposed nomenclature of Daylight Saving Time (DST) is Day Time Saving (DTS) which reflects the factual definition.

 

Key words:      Daylight Saving Time (DST), Day Time Saving (DTS).

I. INTRODUCTION  

 

History repeats itself when the Government of Pakistan decided to adopt Daylight Saving Time (DST) again in 2008 and 2009, as it was first time introduced in 2002 (timeanddate.com) whereby clocks were advanced by one hour.  The primary purpose of advancing clocks is to optimize utilization of sunlight; therefore, it is termed as Daylight Saving Time (DST).  George Vernon Hudson proposed DST in 1895. The longer days nearer the summer solstice in high latitudes offer more room to shift daylight from morning to evening so that early morning daylight is not wasted.  In this regard, clocks’ hands are turned forward one hour near the start of spring and are re-adjusted backward in autumn. In general, the countries which are near the equator, the sunrise time do not vary enough to justify the formula. Therefore, it is not observed near the equator, except Pakistan (wikipedia.com).  

 

The watches of Pakistani community were advanced again by one hour on April 15, 2009 after the government’s decision to follow the Daylight Saving Time. The time was scheduled to be reverted to the original position on Aug 31, 2009. But the Federal Cabinet has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced for another couple of months till October 31, 2009. (worldtimezone.com).   Indeed the effects of DST are not yet assessed in depth.   Although DST is being repeatedly adopted, pros and cons of the system are widely discussed at length at various levels.

 

Theories of social change suggested that the process of social change is though continuing but the innovations are opposed largely even by the literates. No doubt, DST has benefits like the proverb "Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise."   But the Government of Pakistan adopted this system for the sake of energy /electricity saving. In order to know that to what extent the targets are achieved by the stakeholders require a comprehensive study on electricity usage, bills, sleeping patterns, etc. Electricity usage is greatly affected by geography, climate, economic activites and cultural patterns. But the available social indicators are quite visible that DST disrupts meetings, travel, ceremonies, recordkeeping and sleeping patterns as well.   Many computer-based systems can adjust their clocks automatically, but this can be limited and error-prone.   So, since its inception, Daylight Saving Time is supposed to be controvercial and yet to be proved.

            The available literature revealed that DST has appeared mixed effects like reducing evening usage of artificial light and providing more afternoon sunlight for outdoor exercise.  Although sunlight triggers vitamin D synthesis in the skin but over exposure can lead to skin cancer and acute depression, etc. Clock shifts disrupt sleep and reduce working efficiency.  In 2008, a Swedish study explored that heart attacks were significantly more common during the first three weekdays after the spring transition and significantly less common the first weekdays after the autumn transition (wikipedia.com). Another study conducted by the psychologist (Coren, 2008) revealed 7 percent increase in traffic accidents during the day after Daylight Savings Time started while the same proportion of accidents decreased in the fall when the clocks returned to the Standard Time.  

            A study was carried out by the U.S. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (2008) and found that crime was consistently less by 10 to 13 percent due to sufficient light during periods of Daylight Saving Time in comparison of standard time periods. California Energy Commission resource economist (Kandel, 2007) discovered that extending daylight time had little to no effect on energy use in the state. On the contrary, (Lahart, 2008) findings revealed out that the entire state switch to daylight-saving time each year, rather than stay on standard time; cost Indiana households an additional $8.6 million in electricity bills. He concluded that the reduced cost of lighting in afternoons during daylight-saving time is more than offset by the higher air-conditioning costs on hot afternoons and increased heating costs on cool mornings.

            Emery (2008) reported that the chance of a heart attack goes up in Sweden during the first three weekdays after the springtime shift to daylight saving time, possibly because of sleep deprivation. But on the autumn Monday after clocks go back and people can get an extra hour of shuteye, the heart attack risk declines ultimately.  

         

 

II. OBJECTIVES  

 

 

The following specific objectives were achieved through this study:   

 

1.         To know the prevailing time in watches. 

 

2.         To determine the effect of DST on night time sleep; 

 

3.                 To know the perception of people regarding Daylight Saving Time;  

 

4.         To know the routine matters of daily life of respondents during DST; and 

 

5.         To know the perception about electricity consumption during DST.


III. METHODOLOGY 

 

            Proposed design of  this study is of descriptive research with special reference to Descriptive Survey.  A descriptive survey design is appropriate for obtaining people’s perceptions on social issues and social facts concerning the current status of phenomena and/or for describing the nature of existing conditions in a situation (Cohen and Manion, 1980; Trochim, 2000). This design is selected because of the primary purpose of the present study is to explore the perceptions about impact of daylight saving time on sleeping and electricity consumption in Pakistan during 2009.   

            The primary data were collected from Tando Jam town of Hyderabad district. Stratified sampling method was applied since the population was divided into four distinct categories viz. students, unemployed persons, servicemen of public and private sectors.   A sample of 25 respondents from each stratum was randomly selected; thus total sample size was worked out as 100 respondents.   A representative sample size selected for this study is justified at 10% error rate and 95% confidence level. The data were collected by the final year students of B.Sc. of the Department of Rural Sociology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando jam.    Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the data.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

 

 

           

Survey results summarized in Table 1 revealed that 40% of the respondents were of the opinion that sleeping hours had reduced to one hour due to daylight saving time. Segregated data reflected that the majority (64%) of the public sector employees reported that their sleeping hours have reduced.   The survey results was supported by a repot published in The newspaper “The Guardian” during 2007 that switching over to daylight saving in the summer time may have adverse effects as it interrupts people’s natural sleep cycle.  Another study was carried out by physicians   (Janszky and Ljung, 2008) in Sweden and found that the loss of one hour sleep in the days immediately following the clock turn resulted a small increase (5%) in the risk of heart attack in the first three days of the new week after springing forward to daylight savings time

 

 

Table 1: Perception about reduced sleeping by profession 

 

Profession of respondents 

 

 

Sleeping hour has reduced to 1 Hour 

Overall 

 

Yes 

No 

Un- decided 

N 

% 

N 

% 

N 

% 

N 

% 

Employees 

Private 

5 

20.0 

13 

52.0 

7 

28.0 

25 

100.0 

Public 

16 

64.0 

8 

32.0 

1 

4.0 

25 

100.0 

Unemployed 

9 

36.0 

15 

60.0 

1 

4.0 

25 

100.0 

Student 

10 

40.0 

9 

36.0 

6 

24.0 

25 

100.0 

Overall  

40 

40.0 

45 

45.0 

15 

15.0 

100 

100.0 

 

 

 

            One out of every fifth (20%) of private workers declared that they have deprived of one hour sleeping due to new time policy in the study area.   This may be supported as a number of government offices are in the study area, a lot of people from private sectors have a direct or indirect contact with public employees to earn their livelihood. The workers of canteen, restaurants, courier services, Photostat, rickshaw drivers, etc. are serving public sector employees, and therefore, they manage their life with the Pakistan Standard Time.   

 

Two out of every fifth (40%) of the students were severely affected by DST.   Mainly university students are considered as late night party. They want to enjoy their life at one hand and do not want to disturb their studies on the other hand.   .

            The data revealed that 37% respondents were household heads.    Table 2 shows that nearly half (49%) of family heads are suffering from reduced sleeping. Head of any family had a lot of responsibilities. They play vital role in earning livelihood, making decisions, and resolving disputes and managing family matters. Reducing of sleeping hour of the family head may cause of psychological problems, results increased number of domestic violence and family disorganization.   In addition, age factor of family head may increase the chances of blood pressure, diabetes, headache, laziness, etc.

                        

Table 2. DST effect on night time sleep on family head 

Head of the family 

 

Sleeping hour has reduced to 1 Hour 

Total 

 

Yes 

No 

Un- decided 

N 

% 

N 

% 

N 

% 

N 

% 

 

Yes 

18 

49 

16 

43 

3 

8 

37 

100 

 

No 

22 

35 

29 

46 

12 

19 

63 

100 

Total 

40 

40 

45 

45 

15 

15 

100 

100 

 

            The segregated data revealed that little less than two-third (63%) of the respondents was not household heads. Out of them, 35% respondents claimed that they have lost one hour of sleeping against the cost of DST.   On the other hand, nearly half (45%) of the respondents were of the opinion that DST made no major effect on their sleeping.   Only about one-fifth (19%) of the respondents were un-decided to say either impact on their sleeping hours.  

 

Table.3 Perceptions regarding effectiveness of DST by profession 

 

  Profession of respondent 

  

New time policy is useful to save energy 

 

Total 

  

Yes 

No 

No Idea 

N 

% 

N 

% 

N 

% 

N 

% 

Public 

7 

28.0 

9 

36.0 

9 

36.0 

25 

100.0 

Private 

11 

44.0 

9 

36.0 

5 

20.0 

25 

100.0 

Unemployed 

2 

8.0 

18 

72.0 

5 

20.0 

25 

100.0 

Students 

18 

72.0 

3 

12.0 

4 

16.0 

25 

100.0 

Total 

38 

38.0 

39 

39.0 

23 

23.0 

100 

100.0 

 

 

            The profession wise results shown in Table 3 revealed that majority (39%) of the respondents were of the opinion that the new time policy is totally useless to save energy. Majority (72%) of them were unemployed, who expressed their dissatisfaction over DST.   The unemployed stratum of the society is observed to be the best observer, in the way that they don’t have any work to do except discussions and analysis of social issues. They mostly spent their time at hotels and discuss on various topics conclusively for long time. Consequently, they rejected the DST policy by arguing to stop the corruption and kunda/hook system, is the unsurpassed way to save the electricity rather than beating about the bush.  Little more than one third (36%) employees of public and private sectors were of the same opinion that DST could not provide us required results in order to saving electricity.  Likewise, 12% students did not favuor the government policy of DST.

            Table 4: Time availing in watches by profession 

Profession of respondent 

Time in watch/mobile 

Old

DST

Total

N

%

N

%

N

%

Private

16

64

9

36

25

100

Public

5

20

20

80

25

100

Unemployed

13

52

12

48

25

100

Student

0

0

25

100

25

100

Overall

34

34

66

66

100

100

 

The survey result presented in Table 4 shows that little more than one third (34%) respondents are dwelling old time in their watches or mobiles. The analyzed result discovered that 47% respondents belonged to private stratum followed by 38% unemployed persons. The interesting results observed here that yet five out of thirty-four (15%) respondents are government servants; they did not switch their watches over DST. Another perspective of the result of same study shows that every fifth (20%) employee from public departments stands on previous time rather than adopting DST in their watches. Whatever the reasons behind to follow the new time by the public sector employees could be but the breaching of government rules and regulations and do not attend offices according to DST may face disciplinary action by their high ups of the department.       

 


Table 5: Impact of DST on sleeping by Marital Status 

 

 

 

Yes 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    Marital Status  

             Sleeping hour has reduced to 1 Hour 

 

 

No 

 

Off  and On 

 

Total 

% 

N 

% 

N 

% 

N 

% 

Married

17

42.0

17

42.0

7

17.0

41

100.0

Un Married

23

39.0

28

48.0

8

14.0

59

100.0

 Total

40

40.0

45

45.0

15

15.0

100

100.0


 

Table 5 shows that 42% married persons complained about compromised one hour reduced sleeping because of DST. Same percentage (42%) of married ones reported no change in their sleeping hours. DST segmented the married persons into two major groups. In general, married couples usually complain about reduced sleeping. Because, overwhelming majority of parents have young babies and they interrupt during night time sleep and at the same time they will have to awake early in the morning to get up their children for schools. So, complainant of reduced sleeping might have already tight schedule. The survey result also revealed that only one sixth (17%) married disclosed that sometimes their sleeping hour have reduced and sometimes they entertained by complete sleeping. On the other hand, nearly half (48%) unmarried persons reported that DST made no effect in reducing of their sleeping. The result of the survey also refers the flexibility of adaptability is more in unmarried ones than married persons. Therefore, the less proportion (39%) of unmarried persons complained that clock shifts caused one hour reduction in their sleeping. At the same time, a minority group (14%) from unmarried persons reflected off and on impact in the shape of reduced sleeping by DST.

 

Table 6: Perceptions about routine matter of daily life of respondents during DST by profession 

Question  

      Profession of Respondents 

Overall 

     Servicemen  

Unemployed 

Student 

Private 

Public 

Taking lunch according to new time

N

5

10

5

14

34

%

20

40

20

56

Taking dinner according to new time

N

6

11

4

10

31

%

24

44

16

40

Following new time to go bed

N

4

13

3

16

36

%

16

52

12

64

Get up with new time

N

9

22

5

25

61

%

36

88

20

100

 

 

            The solitary data given in Table 6 shows that the daily routine of respondents by profession.  In this regard, different questions were asked about lunch, dinner, sleeping and awaking pattern in connection with DST. The analyzed data showed that nearly two third (61%) respondents are following new time/DST to get up. In this relation, the stratified results clearly showed that majority (41%) of them are from student category. The following stratum with 36% belongs to public servants. Only nine out of sixty-one (15%) respondents are following DST to awake are from private sector. And only the minute quantity (8%) from unemployed persons prefers new time to get up.

            On the contrary, nearly one third (31%) respondents from sample population are following Daylight Saving Time in order to take dinner. The segregated data pointed out that only eleven out of thirty-one (36%) individual are from public sector those changed their routine to take dinner according to new time. To pursue the same routine only 10 respondents from student stratum composed 32 percent from whole sample. Subsequently, one-fifth (19%) persons are taking dinner with new time. And only least quantity (13%) respondents have changed their routine to take dinner are from unemployed category.

 

            The segregated data revealed that more than one third (36%) respondents of the sample population is following DST to go bed. On the other hand, the data revealed and discussed earlier that majority (61%) of respondents, willingly or unwillingly bound to get up with the new time. Hence, such routine clearly refers the significant reduction in sleeping hour of respondents. The stratified result showed that 64% student respondents were following new time to go bed.   About 16% and 12% respondents are from private sector and unemployed category respectively, those are following new time to go bed, in order to take sufficient night time sleep.

            Only one-third (34%) respondents are taking lunch one hour earlier. So, the result revealed that nearly same number (one-third) of respondents are taking lunch with the new time, while the same proportion of the respondents are taking dinner one hour earlier and nearly same number of respondents is following DST to go bed. But the twice mass (61%) is following DST only for awaking to continue their routine work.

 

 

 




Table 7: Perception about electricity consumption during DST by profession 

 

 

DST increased the electricity      consumption 

 

Profession of respondents 

Overall 

Servicemen 

Unemployed 

Student 

Private 

Public 

Yes 

N 

11 

19 

6 

14 

50 

  % 

44 

76 

24 

56 

50 

Undecided 

N 

8 

4 

12 

4 

28 

  % 

32 

16 

48 

16 

28 

No 

N 

6 

2 

7 

7 

22 

  % 

24 

8 

28 

28 

22 

Overall                 

N 

25 

25 

25 

25 

100 

% 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

 

The results of segregated data, given in Table 7 show respondents perceptions about the consumption of the electricity during Daylight Saving Time. Exactly half (50%) of respondents from sample population are firm to say that DST increased somehow electricity consumption. Nearly same results were gathered by Kellogg and Wolff, (2008) by conducting research on electricity consumption during DST and came into conclusion that DST did not reduce overall electricity consumption, but it caused a substantial intraday shift in demand consistent with activity patterns. Further stratification of data by profession depicted that majority 19 respondents (38%) belonged to public sector who were of the opinion that DST invites extra electricity consumption during DST. Little less than one-third (28%) respondents form university students having same opinion that DST may cause of increased electricity consumption. About 22% private workers feel that the new time policy is not good enough to save electricity. At last, a minute quantity of 6 respondents (12%) from unemployed persons believed that DST increased the electricity consumption. The majority of respondent believes that DST supported to increase in electricity demand during daytime, as DST reduced the one hour of nighttime and extra enlarged the daytime by addition of same hour. As a result, who saves their moments in summer afternoon, likely to prefer let go in a comfortable environment rather than to engage in other activities which logically reciprocates by increasing in electricity usage in daytime.

On the other hand, 28% respondents were in doubt to articulate either response about the impact of Daylight Saving Time on electricity usage. And, every fourth (22%) respondent opposed the opinion that DST augmented the use of electricity.

 

 V. CONCLUSION 

            A contribution of this paper has been the examination of Daylight Saving Time on night time sleep and electricity consumption. The study concludes that the implementation of DST enhanced the daytime and reduced night time sleep duration. It is therefore, proposed that the taxonomy of Daylight Saving Time (DST) may be corrected to Day Time Saving (DTS) which actually reflects the real operational definition

             

The study was carried out by the gathering of perceptions of four distinct categories i.e. students, unemployed, public and private individuals. The empirical results of this study suggested that DST is mostly being followed by government employees and students and less practiced in the major part of private sector. Majority (64%) of the public employees have reduced their night time sleep by one hour. Followed by students, unemployed and private workers have shortened their night time sleep 40, 36 and 20 percent respectively. Exactly half of the total respondents from sample population are of the opinion that Daylight Saving Time increased somehow electricity consumption. So, the present survey study revealed that DST invited many institutional, social and economic problems. Current crisis of electricity is the foremost and the current debatable issue. 

            It was disclosed in general discussions during the data collection that parents of school going children (whose schools are far away from their residence town) claimed that as the vans and school buses come now one hour earlier in the early morning and the work which we had to do in some daylight, we have to switch on the lights for those works. Many parents face difficulty in waking up their younger children and more efforts was required to get them ready for school during the daylight saving time.

 

 

 

VI. IMPLICATIONS 

 

DST was imposed for the saving of energy, but there is a general fear among the respondents that DST is one of the causes to increased electricity consumption. At the same time it has disturbed the routine life and shortened sleeping duration. Therefore, it should be discontinued urgently. Beside that a number of suggestions were given by the respondents to the government in order to save electricity.

 

·        Diffusion of awareness among the people in order to save electricity. 

·        Minimize the electricity use in government sector. 

·        Office timings should be reduced. 

·        New technology like solar energy, wind energy and bio-technology should be introduced and new power plants being installed to address the energy crisis and demand. 

·        To eliminate the corruption by restructuring and reforms in WAPDA. 

·        To control over hook/kunda system. 

·        Control over excess usage of lights in display centers. 

·        Ban on bulbs and usage of energy saver should be encouraged. 

·        Subsidies should be given on energy savers. 

·        Proper management of street lights. 

·        Energy conservative buildings must be designed and build. 

 

 

References 

 

1.          Adrienne Kandel, 2007

www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=does-daylight-saving-times-save-energy

 

2.         Cohen, L. and L. Manion, 1980  

Research methods in education. London: Croom           Helm. 

 

3.         Gene Emery, 2008

            www.reuters.com/article/lifestyleMolt/idUSTRE49T6DO20081030

 

4.         Imre Janszky and Rickard Ljung, 2008  

Shifts to and from daylight saving time and incidence of myocardial infarction” New England Journal of Medicine 2008 Oct 30; 359(18):1966-8 

 

5.         Justin Lahart, 2008

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120406767043794825.html  

 

6.         Lahti Tuuli A; Leppämäki Sami; Lönnqvist Jouko and Partonen Timo, 2006 

http://www.biomedexperts.com/Abstract.bme/16930838/Transition_to_daylight_saving_t             ime_reduces_sleep_duration_plus_sleep_efficiency_of_the_deprived_sleep  

 

7.         Laura E. Grant and Matthew J. Kotchen Bren, 2008

http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/2663  

 

 

8.         Ryan Kellogg and Hendrik Wolff, 2008 

w ww.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJ6-4T72WR4-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=936987551&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=72e0dff50919ffce803033b3ab7af298

 

9.         Stanley Coren, 2008

www.selfhelpmagazine.com/article/daylight-savings-time

 

10.       The Guardian” today newspaper (2007)

http://www.nhs.uk/news/2007/October/Pages/Sleepanddaylightsavingtime.aspx

 

11.       Transparency International report (2006)  

Corruption in 3 years increased by 100pc: Business Recorder June 27,2008, Karachi 

12.       Trochim, W., 2000                                                                                                     The research method knowledge base, 2nd edition. Atomic Dog Publishing, Cincinnati, OH. 

13.       U.S. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (2008)

www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/k.html

 

14.       www.londoneconomicspress.com

 

15.       www.timeanddate.com

 

16.       www.wikipedia.com

 

17.       www.worldtimezone.com

 

 

             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           



* Faculty of Agricultural Social Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam

** Department of Sociology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro